Cutting Fluid plays a significant role in the process of machining. In the current industrial scenario, there is a constant improvement in materials, tools & cutting parameters and therefore good cutting fluids are required to increase the productivity. Cutting Fluid reduces the friction between workpiece &tools, it also reduces the temperature generated during cutting or machining. It can aid in increasing the tool life, machining efficiency and attribute of surface finish. The main function of cutting fluid is to provide lubrication, cooling, cleaning or flushing of chips and corrosion protection. The choice of most favourable machining factors can bring out extended life of the tools, a superior finish to the surface. Cutting fluids is an additional choice to achieve greater amount of removing materials. Among every machining practice there is a widespread use of cutting fluids.
Application of Cutting Fluids
There are three most prominent ways to apply cutting fluids upon the workpieces and the tools.
- Flooding :- Cutting fluids are applied to tools and workpieces by large quantity in the form of liquids.
- Jet Application :- Through this technique cutting fluids in the form of liquid or gas is applied to tools and workpieces by using enormous force.
- Mist Application :- This technique involves application of the cutting fluids after mixing it with gas. This method also is a mixture of both the techniques pointed out above.
Functions of Cutting Fluids
Cutting fluids serves few purposes as:
- at slower cutting speeds it works as a lubricant
- at faster cutting speeds it is a coolant
- at the cutting area it helps to get rid of irregular chips
- at machining area shield tools and workpiece from corrosion
Cutting Fluids in Machining Processes
The cutting fluid is used when machining involves cutting with tools. During such machining the temperature of the tool gets higher due to the generation of a large amount heat. As a result, the mechanical strength can get diminish considerably and sometimes it can lead to complete failure. In such a scenario these fluids are responsible to decrease the heat and retain the strength of the tool. Further this can enable machining at faster pace. Operations, related to machining, like threading, broaching, drilling, milling, etc. are done with steel tools of great force. And while using such tools cutting fluids are very necessary.
Cutting fluid is essential in machining processes when surface roughness is low or firm tolerance is needed. The cutting fluid when acts a lubricant assures a superior finish on the surface. And when the fluid acts as a coolant gives surety of providing firm tolerances since it evades the workpiece’s thermal expansion. Application of cutting fluid turns out to be essential mostly during deep drilling because it helps to check the generation of irregular chips. Here, the main purpose of the fluid is to take away the irregular chips from the area of machining. Or else this could be the reason for breakage of tool which happens due to jamming of unwanted chips.
Generally, the constant cutting of metals and non-metals with tools of carbide is done with cutting fluid’s application. The carbide tools may be irrespective of having a coating or not having a coating. The application of cutting fluids lessens the expenditures and enhances the life of the tool. Cutting fluids are significant in giving higher cutting speeds with tools of carbide coated with significant substances. It has been now well-understood that when cutting is carried out without fluid the tool life is shortened.
The Conclusion In the industry of conventional production a vital position is held by the processes of machining. To achieve a cost-effectivemachining the use of cutting fluids is essential. It also includes careful selection of proper machining aspects. These aspects further depend upon workpiece materials and cutting tools.